This essay summarizes the author's 10 years of experience at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation mentoring secondary school science teachers during 8-wk Summer Research Institutes. The summary is presented as a learning model, which we call the research dynamic. This model consists of three interlocked components: specified ignorance, peer interactions, and gateway experiments.
Specified ignorance is based on the work of the sociologist Robert K. It is essentially the art of highlighting what is not known about a phenomenon but must become known for further progress. In practice, specified ignorance is framed as a hypothesis, a prediction, or a question. It is commonly the outcome of peer interactions, which are the second essential component of the research dynamic.
Peer interactions are the inevitable outcome of having teachers work together in the same laboratory on related research topics. These topics are introduced as gateway experiments, the third component. The most important attribute of gateway experiments is their authenticity. These experiments, when first carried out, opened new scientific vistas. They are also technically, conceptually, and logically simple. We illustrate the research dynamic with a line of seminal experiments in biochemical genetics.
We provide evidence that the research dynamic produced significantly positive effects on teachers' confidence in their professional preparedness. This essay distills the author's 10 years as a mentor for rural high school science teachers in the Oklahoma Science Project OSP. The core element of the OSP was an 8-wk summer research experience at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation intended to enhance rural teachers' laboratory skills and confidence Leslie, OSP applicants, although dedicated professionals with excellent records of attending courses, institutes, workshops, and other activities related to professional development, including in some cases national certification, generally lacked significant laboratory experience or the more crucial experience of thinking like a scientist.
It soon became clear that the OSP would have to address more than technical skills. This new perspective motivated careful thought about the essential features of how science is actually done. As this occurred, the OSP evolved into the professional development model described here and which we refer to as the research dynamic.
The OSP was originally based on the author's intuitive sense as a professional scientist that teachers should be comfortable with both the conceptual and technical content of key scientific discoveries and with the cognitive practices that scientists used when they made those discoveries Silverman, This was essentially an historical perspective meant to engage science teachers in authentic re discovery.
The author, as mentor, would provide technical guidance with explicit attention to the cognitive context of experiments when they were first done.
This last point is worth elaboration. Schwartz et al. Rather, Schwartz et al. What are these cognitively important features?Retail marketing and promotion planning calendar
To find out, Schwartz and Lederman surveyed 24 professional scientists from several disciplines about their views of the nature of science. All true, to be sure, but such descriptors are not particularly useful formative guides to how an effective professional development program might operate.It is what is considered a typical example of a thing or person.
Character archetypes, for instance, could include the jock, the nerd, the cheerleader, etc.Theses and dissertations abstracts
Characters are often defined and developed further by their literary dimensions: they can be flat or round, and static or dynamic. Flat characters lack depth, and serve as poles around which round characters more developed and complex orbit.
In this sense, round characters are more realistic, more human. Both flat and round characters can be either dynamic or static. Dynamic characters change or evolve, whereas static characters do neither. Typically, conflicts are either internal or external. An external conflict is a struggle the character faces from without—character vs.
Quite simply, to foreshadow is to drop clues that hint at how the story will end. Irony: Irony refers to a contradiction or incongruity between what is expected and what actually occurs.Math background for projects kids crafts
There are 3 types of irony: Verbal Irony this is the intentional use of words to mean something elseSituational Irony this involves a discrepancy between what is expected to happen and what actually happens and Dramatic Irony this is when the audience is aware of something that the characters are not.
Authors like to use their narrators to challenge the reader by way of narrative tricks—a kind of literary sleight of hand—, so it is important to pay close attention to narration and any possible shifts in point of view. The reader should ask herself whether she trusts the narrator. Is the narrator reliable or unreliable?
Plot is often divided into three sequential elements: rising action, turning point, and denouement. More specifically, setting is the historical, geographical, temporal, cultural and social location whether real or invented of a work of fiction.Art made simple
Usually, a symbol stands for something larger than itself, in that it creates a connection between an image and an idea or a concept. In most examples in literature, a symbol is either an object, a person, a place, or an action. Signs and symbols are arbitrary, until they are assigned meaning a red octagon signifies stop because most English speaking and European countries agree that it does—this said, in other countries the symbol is meaningless, at least in this particular context.
An author can use a symbol to either confirm or defy our expectations of its meaning. Water can symbolize life, but it can also symbolize death, or even rebirth—indeed, symbolism is a rather fluid literary technique. The theme is what the author wants you to take away from, or understand about, the story. Search for:.
In developing the grant proposal for the U. What became clear in that meeting room was evidence of a broader issue in distance education research. Individuals who are studying distance education, including eLearning, blended learning, and online learning, are heterogeneous.
These individuals represent an array of disciplines, including different paradigmatic, theoretical, and methodological approaches to studying distance education, just as we were witnessing in the room that day. The opportunity of this diversity in research approaches has the potential to provide our higher education communities a greater understanding of the complexity of human interaction in distance education.
Evident from this discussion was a need for coherency about how to approach the study of this phenomenon. In distance education, a common language or ground has not yet been established. Although existing scholarship attempts to establish an identity for teaching and learning on the fringe or margins see Moore,such as distance education, there is still much work to be done. It is common in other disciplines to struggle with finding this common ground as well e.
Yet, unlike many other disciplines that have models illustrative of the phenomenon of interest or research models that guide the design of research, distance education has seen little traction in this area. A cohesive approach to researching distance education from a transdisciplinary lens is pertinent. The lack of common language and work being conducted in disciplinary silos has led to a disregard or lack of acknowledgement of previous developments in the field.
Furthermore, the disconnect many times between the fast moving development of practice and redundant research of already proven practices is less than helpful to developing distance education.
Several authors over the last several years have noted this dilemma. Moore and Kiersey have discussed this tendency as a threat to good practice and good scholarship. Our initial goal, as outlined in the grant, is to solve this problem and create a language that will have sustainability across disciplines and temporal barriers.
At least in the first year, it was apparent that there was a need for grant efforts to focus on creating a language we can all understand as well as to engage distance education stakeholders from across the country in the attempt to create an interdisciplinary lens for examining distance education.
In so doing, the aim is to facilitate research efforts regarding cross-institutional distance education research as a strategy for ensuring quality in teaching and learning for all students. The research fellows on the grant team felt a desire to identify a model or models that represented research in distance education, in particular, with regard to the research that would be conducted as part of the grant activities.
Moreover, the development of a framework of inquiry that included detailed representations, which illustrates the varying levels of inquiry as characterized by input-throughput-output processes facilitating an interdisciplinary approach to studying distance education, was needed as well as research models. The first goal of the grant activities is to develop research models for online learning that provide guidance in the practice of distance education research.
The models were intended to facilitate the exploration of instructional practices, inform future instructional practices, serve as a model for future research practices across educational institutions, and enhance consistency in the field.
In the development process, it became clear that a more general research model was needed to represent the various research designs that would be deployed as part of the DETA research efforts rather than several specific research models.
The development of this model included the following steps:. These desired outcomes were published on the DETA community site and feedback was solicited from the national experts who participated in the summit. The desired outcomes guiding the activities at the DETA national summit are also appended.
The research questions and associated votes were statistically analyzed for prioritization. The top research questions were identified by highlighting those that were one standard deviation at or above the mean. Additionally, the variables were examined to identify conceptual alignment with existing literature and to sort based on level of inquiry, which resulted in the framework of inquiry see Figure 1, General Framework of Inquiry.
The detailed version of the framework of inquiry, including variables, can be viewed here. Situated within the framework of inquiry, several research designs were created, including formulating measures, developing instrumentation, and coding to conduct cross-institutional research within the framework of inquiry.
These research designs included experimental and survey study designs to address the top research questions. Experimental designs included interventions identified for testing that burgeoned from discussions at the DETA national summit. Survey studies and instrumentation applicable to both survey and experimental studies were developed from existing research at UWM and a review of the literature, including utilized instrumentation.
Survey studies included questions to gather qualitative data for analysis to address research questions of exploratory nature.
Both the survey and experimental research designs are complemented by data mining of student information systems to provide learner characteristics low-income, minority, first generation, and disabled and outcome data grade, completion. Taking a structured approach to model development, a research model for online learning appropriate for interdisciplinary research and diverse methodologies was derived from a grounded and theoretical approach see Figure 2, Developing Research Model of Online Learning.Include Synonyms Include Dead terms.
Download full text. Developmental research, as opposed to simple instructional development, has been defined as the systematic study of designing, developing, and evaluating instructional programs, processes, and products that must meet criteria of internal consistency and effectiveness. Developmental research is particularly important in the field of instructional technology.
The most common types of developmental research involve situations in which the product-development process is analyzed and described, and the final product is evaluated. A second type of developmental research focuses more on the impact of the product on the learner or the organization. A third type of study is oriented toward a general analysis of design development or evaluation processes as a whole or as components. A fundamental distinction should be made between reports of actual developmental research practice and descriptions of design and development procedural models theory.
Although it has frequently been misunderstood, developmental research has contributed much to the growth of the field as a whole, often serving as a basis for model construction and theorizing.
One figure illustrates the discussion. Contains 24 references.A theoretical model: you will meet this term not once if you are working on your dissertation paper.
What Is a Theoretical Model? Where and Why Is It Used?
Moreover, you will have to develop your own theoretical model. It is, actually, a mandatory requirement for a dissertation paper. Do you know why it happens like this? Because many sources cannot provide exact requirements and clear guidelines on how to formulate a theoretical model. That is why we start with the most basic thing: the definition of a theoretical model. So, a theoretical model can be defined as a theory that is developed to explain a situation or a phenomenon and further, to be able to forecast it.
Theoretical modeling is based on a number or a set of theories. These theories are used to explain some situations, phenomena, behavior types. That, in turn, allows to understand the problem or, rather, the issue, to make conclusions about the most significant features and, finally based on all the previous data, to forecast the situation or the phenomenon or its effects.
However, you will see further, that this is far from the truth. Theoretical models are based on some theories. Hence, there should be several ways of developing them. Depending on the ways how they are developed, we distinguish three theoretical model types:. The theoretical regression model is based on a regression analysis, or, if we formulate it in a simpler way, the modeling direction is from a bigger changeable to a smaller one.Fragments metropolitan museum of art
The bigger changeable can change independently, and changes in it influence the smaller changeable. Like this, small changeable depends on the bigger changeable. If we analyze the influences and the connections, we can forecast, how a change in the bigger changeable is going to influence the smaller changeable. Cognition is the process of knowledge acquiring. So, as you could already guess, the theoretical cognitive model is based on the knowledge you are acquiring about a process or a phenomenon.
You observe the phenomenon, study it, and based on the experience that you have, and you can make forecasts and suggestions. This process is called cognitive modeling.Dynamic Strategic Analysis pp Cite as. Chapter two provided a detailed review of four different schools of thought that dominated the strategy literature over the past four decades. Extensive research helped to establish sound theoretical foundations in each research field. Based on these foundations, each approach claims to provide a satisfactory explanation for performance differences between firms.
However, with four competing paradigms, one question is particularly interesting: who is right? Can performance be fully explained by industry characteristics as claimed by industrial organization economists?
Does corporate strategy play the decisive role or is it perhaps strategic moves on the business unit level? Unable to display preview.Sports marketing companies in nyc nj
Much of the complexity literature reviewed in this chapter is based on earlier writings of systems dynamics i. This literature has been reviewed, but is not presented in detail in this study.
Google Scholar. Personalised recommendations. Cite chapter How to cite?
ENW EndNote. Buy options.Like a round charactera dynamic character also undergoes changes throughout the narrativedue to conflicts he encounters on his journey. A dynamic character faces trials and tribulations, and takes time to learn from his encounters, his experiences, and his mistakes, as well as from other characters. All of these changes make a character dynamic, but they are implied changes, not stated outright.
Though dynamic and round characters both undergo character development, there is a slight difference between them. The traits of a dynamic character are not described outright. Rather, his traits are referred to as they change over time.
Round characters are dynamic as well, such as Hamlet. The most important conflict in this novel is the inner conflict of Harry Potter, which makes him a dynamic character. Harry perceives that he shares some abilities similar to Tom Riddlewho becomes the evil Lord Voldemort, and this makes him worry that he might also turn out to be an evil character.
It is our choices, Harry … far more than our abilities. It resolves his inner conflict, making him a good example of a dynamic character. Throughout the playHamlet is worried about life and death, and it is this apprehension that makes him a dynamic character. Because of his preoccupation with this fear, Hamlet does not act out on his desire to take vengeance on Claudius.
Hamlet thinks that even great men, such as Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar, could not escape it. This philosophical change in his perspective about death lets him finally take revenge on King Claudius.
There are four dynamic characters in this novel: Jack, Ralph, Simon, and Piggy. Jack is the most prominent among them — an important dynamic character who goes through a lot of changes during the course of the novel. On the island, Jack encounters life-changing experiences that develop and change the character forever.
Towards a Dynamic Research Model
He has never thought that he would live the way he lives on the island. His authoritative nature, violence, and instinctual behavior make him a dynamic character. Sydney Carton is another good example of a dynamic character. I care for no man on earth, and no man on earth cares for me. Sydney is frustrated, and thinks his purpose in life is only to serve C. The only beautiful part of his life is his love for Lucie Manette. When he hears the news that she will marry Charles Darnay, Sydney is heartbroken, which drives him to reveal his feelings to her.
A dynamic character plays an important role in a narrative. Often it is the main character of the story, which helps to build a compelling and convincing story.
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